Aconitum anthora

Ecological preferences: Heliophytes or scio-heliophytes; xerophytes or mesoxerophytes, rarely – mesophytes; basiphils or neutrophils, rarely – hyperbasiphils or subacidophils.

Distribution and habitats in Ukrainian Carpathians: This is one of the rarest monkshoods in Ukrainian Carpathians which is sporadically represented on different altitudes from lower montane up to beginnings of alpine belts. This species is confirmed for Chornohora, Chyvchyny, Gryniava, and Eastern Beskids. It also known from Marmarosh Mts., and there are few herbarium specimens from Svydovets, as well as one unconfirmed citation from Gorgany. These plants mostly grow on open xerothermic spaces between stones or just on the rocks, sometimes they occur among the short grasses or near the shrubs of alder, juniper or pine. From other side, the population from Stinka Mt. (Eastern Beskids) is located on rocks directly in shady forest.

Distribution and habitats in Chornogora: Several localities are usually mentioned for Chornohora, but we found only one of them. This population is located on the slopes of Petrosul and Petros Mts. It includes only about 20 generative plants and can be classified as of normal vitality. However the general condition of the population seems to be bad because it is overgrowing by woody plants. Its communities can be determined as Juniperetum sibiricae or Pulmonario-Alnetum viridis. Soil type is subacidic leptic cambisol.

Distribution and habitats in Gorgany: A. anthora is mentioned in releve made in 1962 on Negrovets Mt. near the Kolochava village (Torunsko-Bertianski Gorgany) by Malynovskiy & Kricsfalusy (2000). I visited Negrovets in 2017, however I did not find A. anthora there. As well, I did not find any other mentiones of A. anthora from Gorgany. Therefore I can suggest that it was cited mistakenly, but we still must investigate this region.

Threats: Overgrowing by tall herbs and woody plants together with very limited presence in Ukrainian Carpathians make this species very important for conservation and deserving the status of VU.